Kihon is a Japanese term meaning “basics” or “fundamentals.”The term is used to refer to the basic techniques that are taught and practiced as the foundation of most Japanese martial arts.The practice and mastery of kihon is essential to all advanced training,and includes the practice of correct body form and breathing, while practicing basics such as stances, punches,kicks, blocks, and thrusts, but it also includes basic representative kata.
Kihon is not only practicing of techniques, it is also the karateka fostering the correct spirit and attitude at all times.Kihon techniques tend to be practiced often,in many cases during each practice session. They are considered fundamental to mastery and improvement of all movements of greater complexity.
Kihon in martial arts can be seen as analogous to basic skills in, for example, basketball.Professional NBA players continue to practice dribbling, passing, free throws, jump shots,etc. in an effort to maintain and perfect the more complex skills used during a basketball game.Styles of karate differ greatly in the emphasis placed on kihon.
Kihon may be practiced as “floor exercises”, where the same technique or combination is repeated multiple times as the students move back and forth across the floor. Japanese kihon training is notorious for extended periods of kihon training. This style of practice is believed to ingrain the techniques into the muscle memory of the karateka.Some styles employ “kihon kata” in teaching beginners.
Additionally, kihon may take the form of prearranged partner drills whereby two students face each other and alternate execution of a technique. This approach combines repetition with training in distancing. Targets for punching and kicking, such as bags, shields, or dummies, are generally used at more advanced stages of kihon training to strengthen muscles, bones,and skin.The basic techniques of blocking, punching, striking and kicking are both the beginning of karate and the altimate goal.
Although only a matter of months may be sufficient to learn them, complete mastery may not come even after a lifetime of training.The student must practice regularly,with maximum concentration and effort in the execution of each and every movement.This will not be sufficient, however, unless the techniques are scientifically sound and the training systematic and properly scheduled. To be effective, training must be conducted on the basis of correct physical and physiological principles.
It may come as a surprise to many to know that the techniques created and refined through long and continuous practice by the early karate student have been found to accord with modern scientific principles. And the more they are studied, the more this proves to be true.This is not to say that there are no unsolved problems, but these mustawait further study.Further refinement of karate is quite probable, as techniques are analyzed in an unceasing effort to improve them through a scientific approach.In order to benefit from his training,the student should have a good understanding of following primary points.
The weapons of karate-do are various parts of the human body.Every part that can be effective in defense or offense is used,It is in this respect that karate-do is different from the other martial arts.Systematic training is the only way to develop weapons that will be ready for use at any time,in any place,in any situation.It is most important that training of every part of the body be continuous and methodical.Intensive training alone is not abequate to convert the parts of the body into powerful weapons.